treatments for cancer, chronic-degerative disease, infection, stress,
harmful emotions and other disorders and conditions;
SUBJECT: ANTI-SMALLPOX VACCINE ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES AND QUOTES BY FAMOUS MEN OF MEDICINE AND SCIENCE
Article On Smallpox Vaccination
This specific article proved almost impossible to find on my own. Every Library I checked "coincidentally" had this one single volume missing from the set. I finally had to use my hometown interlibrary loan service to send away for it.
Smallpox was NEVER eradicated by vaccination. WHO field workers had to resort to the ancient missionary practice of quarantine, according to their statements when interviewed for the book ?????? (I will put it here when I remember the title or run across a reference to it). The author claims they admitted, "the real story will never be known." In true historical accounts, vaccine programs were followed by horrendous outbreaks of the disease until they ceased vaccinating and started the quarantine program. Reportedly, only then were the epidemics brought under control.
Also, the claim that smallpox was eradicated was a political move, not related to facts. They simply declared their disasterous program a success and renamed the disease. Now there are epidemics of "monkey pox." Same disease organism, same symptoms, new name.--DJT
CREIGHTON, CHARLES, M.A. Aberd. 1867, M.B. and C.M. 1871, M.D. 1878; M.A. Camb. (propter merita); (Aberd., Edin., Vienna, and Berlin); formerly Demonst. of Anat. Univ. Camb.
One of 4 significant medical men to oppose smallpox vaccination (along
with William Job Collins, Walter R. Hadwen, and Edgar Crookshank). He
was asked to write an article for the Encyclopaedia Britannica on vaccination,
which led him to the conclusion it didn't work. Consequently he was erased
from the history books. The whale.to editor managed to get him onto Wikipedia
(2006). You can see how the Allopathic editors there have suppressed all
links to his books on this website and others [ref] [ref] [ref]. He was
one of the Vice presidents of the The National Anti-Vaccination League
Quotes on Creighton
[Dr. Charles Creighton M.A. M.D section on ‘Vaccination’ in the ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 1888.]
The tables didn't copy and paste--go to the website source to view them-- http://www.whale.to/a/creighton4.html
See: Medical Information Control
Relations of smallpox, cowpox, and grease of horse
Relations of smallpox, cowpox, and grease of horse
It is right to say that the views expressed in the present article diverge in many points from the opinions generally received among medical men, and must be regarded not as the exposition of established and undisputed doctrine, but as the outcome of an independent and laborious research.
These three very different infections have the same kind of vesicle, in every case unlike a smallpox pustule, and the same natural termination in a phagedenic or indurated sore.
Jenner's originality in starting vaccination in practice is for the most part misunderstood. When he published his Inquiry in June 1798, he had twice succeeded in raising vaccine vesicles by experiment,—the first time in 1796 with matter from a milker's accidental sore, and the second time in March 1798 with matter direct from the cow. The first experiment was not carried beyond one remove from the cow; the second was carried to the fifth remove, when the succession failed. A third experiment, in the summer of 1798, failed from the outset; and his fourth and last experiment, in November-December 1798, led to nothing but extensive phagedenic ulceration in two cases out of six vaccinated.
Historical sources of vaccine lymph
[* Footnote: Cowpox of the original ulcerating type still occurs, but is now hardly recognized as such. The inquiry into an outbreak of scarlet fever in December 1886, traced to a dairy at Hendon (Middlesex), elicited the feet that the inculpated cows, as well as seventy or eighty at two other farms, were affected with what the dairymen called "cowpox" (see Cameron, Trans. Epid. Soc., April 1886). A similar outbreak in November 1887, involving 160 cows and 7 milkers at four farms in Wiltshire, was clearly proved by Crookshank to be the historical cowpox of Jenner and Ceely, by the evidence of identity in the sores on the cows teats and in the sores or vesicles on the milkers' hands or faces, and by the production of correct vaccine vesicles in calves inoculated with lymph from a vesicle on the face of a milker (Brit. Med. Journ., 17th December 1887 and 21st January 1888).]
Anomalous sources of vaccine
Grease of the horse
A negative result was come to by Klein in 1879, in an inquiry for the Local Government Board, wherein he had Ceely's cooperation. In 1879 the Irish Local Government Board prevented the use of similar variolous lymph by threatening to prosecute under the Act making the inoculation of smallpox penal. Notwithstanding the common sense of the case, and these experimental proofs, the official view taken by the medical department in 1857, that Thiele, Ceely, and Badcock had established the correctness of Jenner's doctrine of variolae vaccinsae, is still held very tenaciously by the profession. It is too simple and attractive to be soon given up; but perhaps the best way to get rid of it is to state in plain terms what cowpox itself really is.
Natural History of cowpox
Its infective properties
The ulcers heal sometimes slowly, sometimes more quickly; they may heal under crusts, or as open sores; induration and rounding of the edges are distinctive, along with much thickening of the base. The scars are also indurated, rounded and elevated at the edges, and smooth or puckered on the surface; they are often as large as a walnut. It is not easy to see a vesicular stage of the disease even in the cows infected from the initial spontaneous case; and Ceely had for the most part to be content with the coagulated matter of crusts to vaccinate with. The process is, in fact, bound up from first to last in the most intimate and essential manner with the operation of milking. Cowpox “undisturbed by the milker's hands” has no existence in the originating cow; it is the persistent irritation that makes it a pox. It is communicable, also, to the hands of the milkers themselves, and by their filthy hands to their faces. Jenner mentions a good many such cases; Pearson has collected several; and Ceely gives three in very full detail. As in the inoculated venereal pox, the infection proceeds for a time under the skin, making a bluish-white vesicle; it eats away the tissues round the margin, where the fluid makes the skin bulge out into the characteristic tumid ring. After the fourteenth day the vesicle will have become an eschar, the average size of a sixpenny piece, which comes away and leaves a sore. The open sore is a regular part of the infection in the milker's hand. Various regions of the face get infected by contact from the hands: Jenner mentions the case of "a poor girl who produced an ulceration on her lip by frequently holding her finger to her mouth to cool the raging of a cowpox sore by blowing upon it"; another of Jenner's cases had the sore on the wing of the nose; one of Ceely's cases had an ulcer on the temple three-quarters of an inch long; in a case observed by Crookshank there was a very large vesicle and subsequent sore over the left cheek-bone. The local infection is accompanied by constitutional disturbance, more or less severe, including headache, pains in the loins, vomiting, and sometimes delirium. The axillary glands become painful, usually about the fourth day, and remain hard for some time. Eruptions occurred, but there is very little said about them.
[*Footnote: But Addington (On the Inoculation of the Cowpox, Birmingham, 1801), who got his lymph from Woodville, was not equally fortunate: of eleven cases at the beginning of his series five ended in ulceration , after that the cases all ended in a " dry scab."]
had it not been so, it is not likely that cowpoxing on the large scale would ever have survived the initial discouragements entailed by the use of primary lymph. The process on the child's arm was on the whole the same as on the milker's hand, allowing for the more deliberate mode of inoculation and for different texture of the skin. The vesicle grew to a great size up to the fourteenth day, and often became an ulcer, either excavated under the crust or absolutely open., Estlin did not entirely get rid of ulceration until after the twenty-ninth remove from the cow. The constitutional disturbance was often severe in infants: axillary tenderness and swelling were somewhat constant, and eruptions were especially frequent about the second to the fourth week, including macular roseola, lichen, and pemphigoid bullae. At each successive remove from the cow the cycle of the process became more contracted, and the constitutional disturbance, caeteris paribus, became less. Bousquet gives a plate which shows by parallel series of figures the differences between the vesicles of the old lymph (Woodville's, nearly forty years old) and the lymph from the Passy cow. The new lymph induced a process more protracted at every stage: the vesicle continued to enlarge at the periphery for several days after the common vaccine vesicle of the period would have ceased to extend. It was not at its maximum until about the end of the second week, and it then became an eschar and a sore. Bousquet confesses that he first understood "les frayeurs de Jenner" when he saw the ulcerative and other effects of primary lymph. After a certain number of removes from the cow the cycle became so contracted that the vesicle was full at the eighth or ninth day; the abbreviation of its life-history enabled it to heal without ulcerating. It thus becomes the ordinary vaccine vesicle as we know it, which heals under a scab, and leaves the peculiar punctated scar of subcrustaceous repair. The abbreviation or mitigation is effected by taking lymph from each successive vaccinifer at as early a period as it can be got, until the golden mean of safe vaccination namely, maturity at the eighth day, is reached. That corresponds to Jenner's rule of taking the matter for vaccination before the areola appears; if the vesicle be emptied after that period, the lymph from it is apt to cause ulceration, or, as Ceely puts it, we have "all the inconveniences of primary lymph." It is thus clear that humanized cow-pox might be easily cultivated back to its original type; and, as a matter of fact, it has sometimes been so cultivated back by misadventure, with serious consequences to the vaccinated.
Risks of vaccination
[*Cowpox and other effects.of vaccination.]
erysipelas after vaccination. The post-vaccinal inflammation sometimes takes the form of phlegmon; but there is no separate entry for that as a special sequel of vaccination. Many of the alleged deaths from erysipelas after vaccination have been the subject of coroner's inquests; the verdict is often an open one, and even such cases as those near Gainsborough in 1876 and at Norwich in 1882 were found to have been returned (all but one) by the certifying medical practitioners as due to erysipelas merely. It may be assumed that "after vaccination" is not certified unless the case has left no doubt in the minds of the jury or of the certifying medical attendant. The increase in the first column from 0 in 1855 to 32 in 1880 is probably in appearance only, and due to more correct diagnosis.
Another form is lichen or dry papules, apt to scale; it may also occur as a vesicular eruption, and in the form of pemphigoid bullae or blebs. In one of Ceely's cases the eruption extended to the whole mucous membrane of the mouth and throat. A peculiarity of the exanthem is that it may come and go several times before it finally disappears; and, like other skin eruptions, specific or non-specific, it may become inveterate. The widespread belief that much of the eczema of childhood dates from vaccination is not by any means to be dismissed as a mere fancy. The skin-disorders that followed vaccination in the first years of the practice were declared by Birch and others to be new in type. At present the vaccinal eruption, especially on the scalp, is sometimes distinguished by the size and form of the crusts, and by scars remaining for a time.
A careful examination of these cases shows that syphilis at the source of the vaccine matter was in all cases an after-thought, that in most of the cases there was no evidence for it, and that in the remaining cases the evidence was so far-fetched as to be unlikely (apart from the known a priori improbability), or that the traces of constitutional infection found in the vaccinifer were subsequent to vaccination, and therefore capable of being explained as an effect concurrent with the more obvious symptoms in those vaccinated therefrom. The effects, however, were very much the same as in the venereal pox. The vaccine vesicle either became an indurated or phagedenic sore, as described in the foregoing section on vaccinal ulcers, or the scar opened into an indurated sore after the usual sub-crustaceous healing was complete, or became indurated without opening. The axillary and cervical glands were often indurated. In most of the epidemics there were a certain number of cases in which the effects were purely local, or confined to one only of the seats of puncture ; if these had not occurred along with others in a group, they would have been counted as ordinary vaccinal ulcers. But there were often secondary symptoms as well including the roseolar, lichenous, or (rarely) pemphigoid eruption, and not unfrequently condylomata circa anum et genitalia. In some epidemics (but not in all) there were, in a small minority of the cases, mucous patches on the tonsils, tongue, or lips, tending to ulcerate; and in some of the Italian outbreaks the infection spread among the mothers and other members of the households in the form of specific sores of the nipples, with or without constitutional symptoms. Affections of the bones and viscera do not seem to have followed; fatalities were not very common.
It will be hard to persuade medical authorities that these secondary effects are not the result exclusively of the venereal pox. The evidence, however, does not allow us to assume any other specific infection than that of cowpox, which, as we know, has its proper secondary exanthem in the form of macular roseola, lichen, or pemphigus; the eruption has even been known to affect the mouth and, throat. The evidence from epidemics of vaccinal sore arms teaches us that condylomata, mucous patches of the tonsils, tongue, and lips, and even iritis, are also possible, although far from invariable, among the "secondaries" of the primary vaccinal ulcer. The most general fact that comes out in these epidemics is that the lymph was taken late from the vaccinifer, or that the vesicles of the vaccinifer were drained dry to vaccinate a large number, or that the same vaccinifer was used for arm-to-arm inoculation on two successive days. It is not difficult to see how, in those circumstances, the abbreviated cycle of humanized cowpox may be departed from and the native or untamed characters of cowpox infection reverted to. Cowpox, indeed, is parallel with the venereal pox, both in the circumstances of its becoming an infective ulceration (indurated or suppurating) and in its secondary or constitutional manifestations as an infection in man. But the "bad" lymph has hardly ever been used beyond the second remove; and there the parallel fails.
The following is a list of the so-called syphilitic epidemics after vaccination, including those that have been considered spurious, because they were either anomalous in type from the point of view of syphilitic infection or had no obvious causal connexion with that Disease.
Udine, 1814 (see Viennois, in Syph. Vaccinale, p. 221). Cremona, 1821 (see Depaul, Projet de Rapport,” in Syph. Vacc). Grumello, 1841 (ibid). Coblenz, 1849 (Wegeler, in Pruess. Vereins-Ztg., 1850, No 14; abstracts in Schmidt’s Jahrb., vol. lxvii., 1852, p62). Upper Franconia (the Huber case), 1852 (Intelligenzbl. Der Bayre. Aerzte, 1854; Bohn, loc. Cit). Lupara (Italian prov. Molise), 1856 (see Depaul, loc. Cit.). Dispon near Pesth, 1855-57 (Oester. Zeitschr. fur prakt. Heilk., 1862; Bohn, loc. cit., p. 322). Rivalta (Piedmont), 1861 (Pacchiotti, Sifilide Trasmessa per Mezzo della Vaccinazione in Rivalta presso Acqui, Turin, 1862). Torre de' Busi near Bergamo, 1802 (see Depaul, loc. cit.). United States (troops on both sides in the Civil War), 1861-65 (Jones, Circular 11., Louisiana Board of Health, Baton Rouge, 1884). Argenta near Ferrara, l866 (Gamberini, in Gaz. des Hopitaux, 1870, p 505). Morbihan (neighbourhood of Vannes and Auray), 1866 (Depaul, Bull. de l'Acad. de Med., xxxii, 1866-67, p. 201; Bodelio, ibid. , p. 1033). Cardaillac (Lot), 1866 (Bull. de l’Acad. de. Med, 28th February 1867). Schleinitz (Styria), 1870 (Kochevar, Allgem. Wiener Med. Ztg., 1870, Nos. 21 and 24 ; abstract in Arch, fur Dermatologie und Syph., 1870). London (two series), 1871 (Hutchinson, Med. Chir. Trans., liv., 1871). Switzerland, 1878 (Bull, de la Soc. de la. Suisse Romande). Algiers, 1880-81 (Journ. d'Hygiene, 25th August 1881). Lyck (East Prussia), June 1878 (Pineus, Vierteljhschr. f. gericht. Med., 1879, p. 193). Asprieres (Aveyron), March 1885 (P. Brouardel, Rapport, Paris, 1886).
Attention was drawn to these cases because they occurred in groups varying in number from 10 to 100 or more, which made considerable stir, especially in country districts. It is unlikely that all cases have been reported. In the third Report of the clinical hospital of Manchester, Whitehead states the results of his inquiries on post-vaccinal illness in children. Setting aside most of the cases of illness vaguely alleged by the mothers to have been the consequence of vaccination, he admits as truly post-vaccinal 34 cases of syphilis or pseudo-syphilis; of these he enumerates only 14 in his table of 63 cases of children's syphilis of all kinds, the other 20 cases being omitted, it would appear, not because there was any doubt of their being post-vaccinal, but because they were not of the perfect type of infantine syphilis. Such was the experience of a competent observer at a single hospital during a period of 20 months. Whitehead's Report was published in 1859; but, when Hutchinson published his first series of London cases in 1871, the subject was considered to be quite new. Here again it was the concurrence of some ten cases in a group that helped the reluctant assent of the profession. The first group of London cases had hardly begun to be talked of when one of Hutchinson's colleagues was led by two cases of skin disease at a hospital to follow up the traces of another group, the very existence of which was unsuspected by the public vaccinator or general practitioners in whose district the eleven patients with vaccinal ulcers and occasional secondaries resided.
In the registrar-general's tables of mortality for England und Wales about one-half of the deaths from "cowpox and other effects of vaccination," or nearly thirty per annum, may be put down to effects of vaccination other than erysipelas; but there is nothing to show that these were fatal cases of vaccinal ulcers with constitutional symptoms or marasmus. On the other hand, the table of deaths from syphilis shows an enormous and steady increase in the number of deaths of infants under the age of one. In the first year of compulsory vaccination (1854) the deaths suddenly increased by one-half, and the increase has gone on steadily since then (see Table II.) The interpretation of the fact is by no means easy or free
Infantine Deaths from Syphilis (England and Wales)
[*The proportion assigned to the first year of life is calculated from the specimen table for 1852 (females only) and from the tables of London mortality.]
from fallacies. There are doubtless other and better reasons for the increase besides vaccination; and it is significant that the tables for Scotland show the mortality to be chiefly in the first three months of life, whereas the statutory limit for vaccination in that country is six months.
Other alleged effects of vaccination
The value of cowpox as a protection against smallpox may now be judged of apart from the fanciful doctrine of variolae vaccinae by which it was originally recommended. It has been put to a test extending over eighty years ; and in some circumstances it has been possible to apply the logical methods of agreement and difference with a good deal of cogency. The besetting fallacy of all vaccination logic is that of post hoc ergo propter hoc ; and the only way to escape it is to hold intelligent views of the history, the natural history, and the epidemiology of smallpox. This will necessitate a brief excursus.
Leaving these parallels and coming to the facts of smallpox itself, it rose to prominence in western Europe in the 16th century, and in England in the 17th. *
[*The first known use of the term "small pocks " is in Holinshed's Chronicle (1577), an epidemic of pestis in 1365 being so rendered, although it was probably the ordinary bubo-plague of the period. The pox of Elizabethan writers was the French pox or great pox (syphilis), which overran Europe as an epidemic in 1494. Its prominent character at its first appearance was the loathsome affection of the skin (especially the face); hence when variola came on the scene it was called the lesser pox, or smallpox.]
From the early part of the 18th century a remission was noted; but the latter half of that century saw a considerable extension of the area of the disease, for which the practice of inoculation has been blamed. It is a mistake to suppose that smallpox has shown a tendency towards a universal infection; for all its chances it has kept within moderate limits of age and place, and extended only by repeated provocation. Thus, Hirsch says of the western hemisphere, "A still more terrible source for America was the importation of Negro slaves, so much so that in after years, particularly in South America and the West Indies, not only the first appearances of smallpox, but every fresh outbreak of it, could be traced to importation from Africa,"—the African continent being then, as now and always, one of its principal native seats. In Europe it has been peculiarly a disease of infancy and of the most crowded parts of cities. It has had victims among the upper classes, just as cholera has had; but, like that disease, its habitat is among the crowded poor; and it would have touched the well-to-do-classes less in former times if there had always been spacious west-end quarters in cities or the modern "passion for clean linen," personal ablutions, and fresh air. Tenement houses and ill-ventilated courts or alleys have been the natural harbourage of smallpox; in proportion as these have been demolished the disease has disappeared or been circumscribed in its area. It is fallacious to estimate its prevalence now in ratio of the whole population; for a just comparison of one period with another, we have to take into account, not the death-rate per million living, but the death-rate per million still living under the old-world conditions. From the earliest period of its history in Europe, the disease has had its seasons of quickening or revival, with long intervals of quiescence ; only in the most crowded parts of Western cities has it ever been endemic from year to year. These epidemic outbursts have varied much in intensity and in area, the conditions of variation being mostly unknown. In that respect, it need hardly be said, smallpox is like other epidemic diseases.
Influence of vaccination upon smallpox
The following table (III.) begins with the year 1847; the registration reports go back to 1838, but there is a break in the tables for five years near the beginning.
Deaths from Smallpox from 1847 to 1884, with the numbers among Children wider five.
*The Italic numerals indicate the periodic maxima.
In the first years of the table the deaths from smallpox of children under five were to those of all other ages in the ratio of 3 to 1 or of 5 to 2 (at Norwich in 1819 there were 530 deaths, of which half were in infants under two, and all the rest save ten were in children under ten years); the disproportion lessened gradually, until about 1864 it was nearly 4 to 3; in 1870 the proportion was nearly equal; and from that time onward the preponderance leaves the age of infancy and childhood, so that in 1884 the deaths under five were three times fewer than those at all other ages. The great epidemic of 1871-72 brought out that remarkable change of incidence most decidedly. Taking the mortality of 1871 as an instance, the significance of the changed incidence on the periods of life is that the 7770 deaths under the age of five would, in pro-compulsion times, have had a complement of no more than 2500 deaths in the later periods of life, or that the actual mortality of 15,356 above the age of five would have had a complement of some 40,000 or 45,000 deaths below that age. (In British India in 1884 of 333,000 deaths 72 per cent, were of children under 12 in Bengal, and 64 per cent, in Madras.) Apart from the changed incidence of smallpox, Table III. shows merely the caprices of the disease as an epidemic. After every epidemic outburst the disease declines and sometimes looks as if it were about to die out altogether. The alarm attending each severe epidemic has induced the legislature to make the vaccination law more stringent and vaccinators to insert more of the virus, so that the periodic subsidence has corresponded to, and has seemed to be owing to, the better enforcement of the practic ; but there have always been alternating periods of quiescence and exacerbation, irrespective of any prophylactic. Moreover, smallpox being a foreign contagious skin disease lurking in congenial haunts, it would be quite according to precedent that it should one day cease absolutely in a community where sanitary progress had advanced so far as to take the ground from under the feet of the pestilence; such absolute cessation would have no more necessary connexion with almost universal vaccination than the alternating quiescence and recrudescence of epidemics have been connected with each new Act of-Parliament. The epidemic of 1871-72 was one of the worst in the whole history of European smallpox; and it may be that it was one of the last flickers of a slowly expiring flame. The universal practice of cowpoxing, however, is based upon the assumption that this contagious skin disease imported from the tropics is a thing that Europe must reckon with for an indefinite time. On the other hand, the teaching of epidemiology is that a foreign pestilence never stays unless it finds quarters suited to its existence, and that it may even take its departure capriciously, as in the case of the plague, after it has had a certain career, or on being displaced by some congener such as typhus. Vaccination is considered to have turned smallpox in great part aside from the early years of life and thrown it more than ever upon the later ages, while measles and other maladies proper to childhood have at the same time increased (See Farr, Reg. Gen. Report for 1867, p. 213: "To operate on mortality, protection against every one of the fatal zymotic diseases is required; otherwise the suppression of one disease-element opens the way to another" (p. 219). He quotes Watt (1813) to show that the decrease of smallpox mortality among infants in Glasgow from 1783 to 1812 was balanced by a great increase in the infantine deaths from measles. See also Guy, Journ. Statist. Soc., 1882, p. 430.)
Its utility to the individual
Death rate among vaccinated and unvaccinated
Table IV. —Deaths from Smallpox, showing the Numbers of the Unvaccinated.
These figures may be made to prove anything, according to the bias of the individual; the column of "not stated " commands the situation. The official figures (Majer, op. cit) for Bavaria in 1871 are more precise: among the 29,429 cases of smallpox in vaccinated persons there were 3994 deaths, while among the 1313 unvaccinated cases there were 790 deaths; of the latter no fewer than 743 deaths were of infants in their first year. The mortality among both the vaccinated and the unvaccinated is always excessive for infancy. Feeble health, as well as non-vaccination, is a factor in the very excessive smallpox mortality at that tender age.
The returns from special smallpox hospitals make out a very small death-rate (6 per cent.) among the vaccinated and a very large death-rate (40 to 60 per cent.) among the unvaccinated. The result is doubtful qua vaccination, for the reason that in pre-vaccination times the death-rate (18.8 per cent.) was almost the same as it is now in the vaccinated and unvaccinated together (18.5). At the Homerton Hospital from 1871 to 1878 there were admitted 793 cases in which "vaccination is stated to have been performed, but without any evidence of its performance"; the deaths in that important contingent were 216, or 27.2 per cent., but they are not permitted to swell the mortality among the "vaccinated.” (Parliamentary Return, 24th February 1880.). Again, the explanatory remarks of the medical officer for Birkenhead in 1877 reveal to us the rather surprising fact that his column of "unvaccinated" contained, not only cases that were admittedly not vaccinated, but also those that were "without the faintest mark"; of the 72 cases in that column no fewer than 53 died. His column of "unknown" contained 80 per cent, of patients who protested that they had been vaccinated (28 deaths in 220 cases or 127 per cent.). Those who passed muster as veritably vaccinated were 233, of whom 12 died (51 per cent.). With reference to this question of the marks, it has to be said that cowpox scars may be temporary, that their "goodness "or "badness " depends chiefly on the texture of the individual's skin and the thickness or thinness of the original crust, and that the aspect of the scar, or even its total absence some years or even months after, may be altogether misleading as to the size and correctness in other respects of the vaccine vesicle, and of the degree of constitutional disturbance that attended it. This was candidly recognized by Ceely, (Trans. Prov. Mtd. And Surg. Assoc., viii., 1840.) and will not be seriously disputed by anyone who knows something of cowpox and of how it has been mitigated, and of the various ways in which the tissues of individuals may react to an inoculated infection. In confluent cases the marks on the arm would be less easily seen.
The following statistical table (VIII.) shows death from smallpox to be comparatively rare where the marks are many and "good."
Table VIII., showing the Number and Kind of Arm Marks in 379 •Fatal Cases of Smallpox at Homerton Hospital, 1871-80 (Gayton).
But nurses are not rarely chosen from among those who have had smallpox, and cases of smallpox in re-vaccinated nurses are not unknown (Sweeting, Rep. Fulham Hosp., 1881). The evidence as to re-vaccination on a large scale comes from the army. According to a competent statistician (A. Vogt), the death-rate from smallpox in the German army, in which all recruits are re-vaccinated, was 60 per cent, more than among the civil population of the same age; it was ten times greater among the infantry than among the cavalry, and sixty times more among the Hessians than among the Wurtembergers. The Bavarian contingent, which was re-vaccinated without exception, had five times the death rate from smallpox in the epidemic of 1870-71 that the. Bavarian civil population of the same ages had, although re-vaccination is not obligatory among the latter.
The susceptibility to cowpox infection diminishes with age; among the pupils of twelve years in Prussian schools it fails in about one-fourth of the attempts, and at later periods of life the proportion of failures is still greater.
It is often alleged that the unvaccinated are so much inflammable material in the midst of the community, and that smallpox begins among them and gathers force so that it sweeps even the vaccinated before it. Inquiry into the facts has shown that at Cologne in 1870 the first unvaccinated person attacked by smallpox was the 174th in order of time, at Bonn the same, year the 42d, and at Liegnitz in 1871 the 225th.
Vaccination was made compulsory in Bavaria in 1807, and subsequently in the following countries :—Denmark (1810),.Sweden (1814), Wurtemberg, Hesse, and other German stales (1818), Prussia (1835), Roumania (1874), Hungary (1876), and Servia (1881). It is compulsory by cantonal law in ten out of the twenty-two Swiss cantons; an attempt to pass a federal compulsory law was defeated by a plebiscite in 1881.
In the following countries there is no compulsory law, but Governmental facilities and compulsion on various classes more or less directly under Governmental control, such as soldiers, state employees, apprentices, school pupils, &c.:—France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Norway, Austria, Turkey.
In a few States or cities of the American Union there is a vaccination statute. In Lower Canada there is no compulsion; but vaccination has been compulsory in South Australia since 1872, in Victoria since 1874, and in Western Australia since 1878. In Tasmania a compulsory Act was passed in 1882. In Now South Wales there is no compulsion, but free facilities for vaccination. Compulsion was adopted at Calcutta in 1880 and since then at eighty other towns of Bengal, at Madras in 1884, and at Bombay and elsewhere in the presidency a few years earlier.
Re-vaccination was made compulsory in Denmark in 1871 and in Roumania in 1874; in Holland it was enacted for all school pupils in 1872. The various laws and administrative orders which had been for many years in force as to vaccination and re-vaccination in the several German states were consolidated in an imperial statute of 1874.
Authorities.— Jenner, Inquiry, London, 1798, and Further Observations, 1799) ; G. Pearson, Inquiry concerning the, History of Cowpox, London, 1708 ; Woodville, Reports of a Series of Inoculations of the Variolae Vaccinae or Cowpox., London, 1799; Baron, Life of Edward Jenner, M.D., 2 vols., London, 1838; Bousquet, Sur le Cow-pox, decouvert a Passy, Paris, 1886; Estlin, in Lond. Med. Gazette, 1838-39; Ceely, Trans. Prov. Med. and. Surg. Assoc., viii. (1840) and x (1842); Hering, Ueber Kuhpocken an Kuhen, Stuttgart, 1839; Viennois and others, in Syphilis Vaccinale, Paris 1865; Bohn, Handbuch der Vaccination, Leipsic, 1875; E.C. Seaton, Handbook of Vaccination, London 1868; Reports on Sanitary Measures in India, 1884-85; W. White, Story of a Great Delusion, London 1885; M’Vail, Vaccination Vindicated, London 1887; Lotz, Pocken und Vaccination, 2d ed., Basel, 1880; G. Fr. Kolb, Der heutige Stand der Impffrage, Leipsic, 1879; A. Vogt, Der alte u. d. neue. Impfglaube, Bern, 1881; and Creighton, Natural History of Cowpox and Vaccinal Syphilis, London, 1887.
Dianne Jacobs Thompson Est. 2003
Also http://legaljustice4john.com The Misdiagnosis of "Shaken Baby Syndrome" --an unproven theory without scientific support, now in disrepute and wreaking legal and medical havoc world-wide
Author publication: NEXUS MAGAZINE "Seawater--A Safe Blood Plasma Substitute?"
The material on this site is for informational and educational
purposes only. Please consult with your health care provider for treatment